During the past several decades we’ve witness tremendous advances in our ability to study human brain function. Now, for example, we can probe processing differences at the level of the cortical laminar, and identify the brain’s intrinsic network architecture via recording slowly fluctuating, spontaneous neural activity at rest. Yet, despite these and other advances, we have little to show for it on the treatment front. In this webinar, I will highlight recent advances in functional neuroimaging that may potentially offer a means for modifying aberrant neurocircuitry in neuropsychiatric patients. This method, closed-loop neuromodulation, uses implicit feedback to manipulate spontaneous activity at the network level, without violating the spontaneous or endogenous nature of the signal inherent in other techniques like TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation). As a result, it may also provide a means for directly testing network causality.