A survey of neuropsychological assessment feedback practices among neuropsychologists

Jacob Varela, University of Missouri, Columbia, United States
Scott Sperling, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, United States
Cady Block, Emory University, Atlanta, United States
Kimberly O'Leary, University of Missouri, Columbia, United States
Eric Hart, University of Missouri, Columbia, United States
Andrew Kiselica, University of Missouri, Columbia, United States


Objective: Feedback on neuropsychological assessment is a critical part of clinical practice, but there are few empirical papers on neuropsychological feedback practices. We sought to fill this gap in the literature by surveying practicing neuropsychologists in the United States. Questions addressed how they provide verbal and written feedback to patients and referral sources. Survey questions also addressed billing practices and training in the provision of feedback.

Participants and Methods:

Participants and Methods: A survey was developed using Qualtrics XM to survey currently licensed, independently practicing clinical neuropsychologists in the United States about their feedback practices. The survey was completed by 184 individuals.


Results: Nearly all respondents reported that they provide verbal feedback to patients, most often in-person, within three weeks following testing. Typically, verbal feedback sessions with patients last 45min. Verbal feedback was provided to referrals by about half of our sample, typically via a brief phone call. Most participants also reported providing written feedback to both the patient and referring provider, most commonly via the written report within three weeks after testing. Regarding billing, most respondents use neuropsychological testing evaluation codes. The COVID-19 pandemic appeared to have had a limited impact on the perceived effectiveness and quality of verbal feedback sessions. Finally, respondents reported that across major stages of professional development, training in the provision of feedback gradually increased but was considered inadequate by many participants.


Conclusions: Results provide an empirical summary of the “state of current practice” for providing neuropsychological assessment feedback. Further experimental research is needed to develop an evidence-base for effective feedback practices.

Category: Assessment/Psychometrics/Methods (Adult)

Keyword 1: assessment
Keyword 2: neuropsychological assessment